Swallowing is a complex process that changes over time, and swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) can be associated with aging. Changes in the tongue, upper throat (pharynx), vocal cords and voice box (larynx), and lower throat (esophagus) occur with aging.
It has been estimated that more than 20 percent of individuals over the age of 50 experience dysphagia.1 Since the aging population is increasing, a significant number of individuals will experience changes in swallowing over time. By understanding normal, as well as abnormal, age-related changes, doctors and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who specialize in swallowing disorders can better counsel patients, and target treatment strategies.
When you have difficulty swallowing, you may be experiencing one or more of the following symptoms:
Several issues can lead to swallowing difficulties, especially as people grow older, including:
This website has numerous resources covering specific swallowing disorders, but when age-related changes alone are suspected, you can use these helpful strategies. Taking good care of your teeth and practicing good oral hygiene are excellent first steps. Ensuring that you chew your food completely and taking small bites and sips can help food move through the swallowing process. Make sure you hydrate properly, such as drinking water, when swallowing drier foods like bread or crackers. Minimizing the use of medications and drinks that dry your mouth and throat, such as coffee and other caffeinated beverages, can be helpful.
You may also consider working with a speech pathologist to learn strategies for eating properly and strengthening your throat using specific exercises. In some instances, further testing by your doctor or swallowing therapist may help identify underlying problems and individual treatment options.
Copyright 2019. American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Last reviewed August 2018.
Disorders that affect our ability to speak and swallow properly can have a tremendous impact on our lives and livelihoods. ENT specialists treat sore throat, infections, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), throat tumors, airway and vocal cord disorders, and more.
The information on ENThealth.org is provided solely for educational purposes and does not represent medical advice, nor is it a substitute for seeking professional medical care.
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